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```# Complex Polynomial Roots Fractal
# See: Scientific American Magazine, May 2003, "A Digital Slice of Pi"
# FB - 201109051
import math
import random
import time
from PIL import Image
imgx = 512
imgy = 512
image = Image.new("RGB", (imgx, imgy))
# drawing area
xa = -2.0
xb = 2.0
ya = -2.0
yb = 2.0

nmax = 18 # max polynomial degree allowed
pmax = 20000 # max number of polynomials to find roots for
maxIt = 1000 # cutoff for iteration

def polynomial(z, coefficients): # Horner scheme
t = complex(0, 0)
for c in reversed(coefficients):
t = t * z + c
return t

# Durand-Kerner method for solving polynomial equations
eps = 1e-7 # max error allowed
def DurandKerner(coefficients):
n = len(coefficients) - 1
roots = [complex(0, 0)] * n
for k in range(n):
roots[k] = complex(random.random(), random.random())
rootsNew = roots[:]
flag = True
it = 0 # number of iterations
while flag:
flag = False
for k in range(n):
temp = complex(1, 0)
for j in range(n):
if j != k:
temp *= roots[k] - roots[j]
rootsNew[k] = roots[k] - polynomial(roots[k], coefficients) / temp
if abs(roots[k] - rootsNew[k]) > eps:
flag = True
roots = rootsNew[:]
it += 1
if it > maxIt:
flag = False
return (roots, it)

st = time.time()
for p in range(pmax):
pd = random.randint(2, nmax)
coefficients = [complex(0, 0)] * (pd + 1)
for k in range(pd):
coefficients[k] = complex(math.copysign(1.0, random.randint(0, 1) * 2 - 1), 0)
(roots, i) = DurandKerner(coefficients)
for k in range(len(roots)):
kx = (imgx - 1) * (roots[k].real - xa) / (xb - xa)
ky = (imgy - 1) * (roots[k].imag - ya) / (yb - ya)
if kx >= 0 and kx <= imgx -1 and ky >= 0 and ky <= imgy - 1:
image.putpixel((int(kx), int(ky)), (i % 8 * 32, i % 4 * 64, i % 16 * 16))
image.save("ComplexPolynomialRootsFractal.png", "PNG")
print "Duration in seconds: " + str(int(time.time() - st))
```

#### Diff to Previous Revision

```--- revision 1 2011-09-05 16:38:14
+++ revision 2 2013-04-29 14:35:53
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@

def polynomial(z, coefficients): # Horner scheme
t = complex(0, 0)
-    for c in coefficients:
+    for c in reversed(coefficients):
t = t * z + c
return t

```