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A-star (A*) is a shortest path algorithm widely used for RTS games, GPS navigation etc.

C++, 292 lines
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// Astar.cpp
// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A*
// Compiler: Dev-C++ 4.9.9.2
// FB - 201012256
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <queue>
#include <string>
#include <math.h>
#include <ctime>
using namespace std;

const int n=60; // horizontal size of the map
const int m=60; // vertical size size of the map
static int map[n][m];
static int closed_nodes_map[n][m]; // map of closed (tried-out) nodes
static int open_nodes_map[n][m]; // map of open (not-yet-tried) nodes
static int dir_map[n][m]; // map of directions
const int dir=8; // number of possible directions to go at any position
// if dir==4
//static int dx[dir]={1, 0, -1, 0};
//static int dy[dir]={0, 1, 0, -1};
// if dir==8
static int dx[dir]={1, 1, 0, -1, -1, -1, 0, 1};
static int dy[dir]={0, 1, 1, 1, 0, -1, -1, -1};

class node
{
    // current position
    int xPos;
    int yPos;
    // total distance already travelled to reach the node
    int level;
    // priority=level+remaining distance estimate
    int priority;  // smaller: higher priority

    public:
        node(int xp, int yp, int d, int p) 
            {xPos=xp; yPos=yp; level=d; priority=p;}
    
        int getxPos() const {return xPos;}
        int getyPos() const {return yPos;}
        int getLevel() const {return level;}
        int getPriority() const {return priority;}

        void updatePriority(const int & xDest, const int & yDest)
        {
             priority=level+estimate(xDest, yDest)*10; //A*
        }

        // give better priority to going strait instead of diagonally
        void nextLevel(const int & i) // i: direction
        {
             level+=(dir==8?(i%2==0?10:14):10);
        }
        
        // Estimation function for the remaining distance to the goal.
        const int & estimate(const int & xDest, const int & yDest) const
        {
            static int xd, yd, d;
            xd=xDest-xPos;
            yd=yDest-yPos;         

            // Euclidian Distance
            d=static_cast<int>(sqrt(xd*xd+yd*yd));

            // Manhattan distance
            //d=abs(xd)+abs(yd);
            
            // Chebyshev distance
            //d=max(abs(xd), abs(yd));

            return(d);
        }
};

// Determine priority (in the priority queue)
bool operator<(const node & a, const node & b)
{
  return a.getPriority() > b.getPriority();
}

// A-star algorithm.
// The route returned is a string of direction digits.
string pathFind( const int & xStart, const int & yStart, 
                 const int & xFinish, const int & yFinish )
{
    static priority_queue<node> pq[2]; // list of open (not-yet-tried) nodes
    static int pqi; // pq index
    static node* n0;
    static node* m0;
    static int i, j, x, y, xdx, ydy;
    static char c;
    pqi=0;

    // reset the node maps
    for(y=0;y<m;y++)
    {
        for(x=0;x<n;x++)
        {
            closed_nodes_map[x][y]=0;
            open_nodes_map[x][y]=0;
        }
    }

    // create the start node and push into list of open nodes
    n0=new node(xStart, yStart, 0, 0);
    n0->updatePriority(xFinish, yFinish);
    pq[pqi].push(*n0);
    open_nodes_map[x][y]=n0->getPriority(); // mark it on the open nodes map

    // A* search
    while(!pq[pqi].empty())
    {
        // get the current node w/ the highest priority
        // from the list of open nodes
        n0=new node( pq[pqi].top().getxPos(), pq[pqi].top().getyPos(), 
                     pq[pqi].top().getLevel(), pq[pqi].top().getPriority());

        x=n0->getxPos(); y=n0->getyPos();

        pq[pqi].pop(); // remove the node from the open list
        open_nodes_map[x][y]=0;
        // mark it on the closed nodes map
        closed_nodes_map[x][y]=1;

        // quit searching when the goal state is reached
        //if((*n0).estimate(xFinish, yFinish) == 0)
        if(x==xFinish && y==yFinish) 
        {
            // generate the path from finish to start
            // by following the directions
            string path="";
            while(!(x==xStart && y==yStart))
            {
                j=dir_map[x][y];
                c='0'+(j+dir/2)%dir;
                path=c+path;
                x+=dx[j];
                y+=dy[j];
            }

            // garbage collection
            delete n0;
            // empty the leftover nodes
            while(!pq[pqi].empty()) pq[pqi].pop();           
            return path;
        }

        // generate moves (child nodes) in all possible directions
        for(i=0;i<dir;i++)
        {
            xdx=x+dx[i]; ydy=y+dy[i];

            if(!(xdx<0 || xdx>n-1 || ydy<0 || ydy>m-1 || map[xdx][ydy]==1 
                || closed_nodes_map[xdx][ydy]==1))
            {
                // generate a child node
                m0=new node( xdx, ydy, n0->getLevel(), 
                             n0->getPriority());
                m0->nextLevel(i);
                m0->updatePriority(xFinish, yFinish);

                // if it is not in the open list then add into that
                if(open_nodes_map[xdx][ydy]==0)
                {
                    open_nodes_map[xdx][ydy]=m0->getPriority();
                    pq[pqi].push(*m0);
                    // mark its parent node direction
                    dir_map[xdx][ydy]=(i+dir/2)%dir;
                }
                else if(open_nodes_map[xdx][ydy]>m0->getPriority())
                {
                    // update the priority info
                    open_nodes_map[xdx][ydy]=m0->getPriority();
                    // update the parent direction info
                    dir_map[xdx][ydy]=(i+dir/2)%dir;

                    // replace the node
                    // by emptying one pq to the other one
                    // except the node to be replaced will be ignored
                    // and the new node will be pushed in instead
                    while(!(pq[pqi].top().getxPos()==xdx && 
                           pq[pqi].top().getyPos()==ydy))
                    {                
                        pq[1-pqi].push(pq[pqi].top());
                        pq[pqi].pop();       
                    }
                    pq[pqi].pop(); // remove the wanted node
                    
                    // empty the larger size pq to the smaller one
                    if(pq[pqi].size()>pq[1-pqi].size()) pqi=1-pqi;
                    while(!pq[pqi].empty())
                    {                
                        pq[1-pqi].push(pq[pqi].top());
                        pq[pqi].pop();       
                    }
                    pqi=1-pqi;
                    pq[pqi].push(*m0); // add the better node instead
                }
                else delete m0; // garbage collection
            }
        }
        delete n0; // garbage collection
    }
    return ""; // no route found
}

int main()
{
    srand(time(NULL));

    // create empty map
    for(int y=0;y<m;y++)
    {
        for(int x=0;x<n;x++) map[x][y]=0;
    }

    // fillout the map matrix with a '+' pattern
    for(int x=n/8;x<n*7/8;x++)
    {
        map[x][m/2]=1;
    }
    for(int y=m/8;y<m*7/8;y++)
    {
        map[n/2][y]=1;
    }
    
    // randomly select start and finish locations
    int xA, yA, xB, yB;
    switch(rand()%8)
    {
        case 0: xA=0;yA=0;xB=n-1;yB=m-1; break;
        case 1: xA=0;yA=m-1;xB=n-1;yB=0; break;
        case 2: xA=n/2-1;yA=m/2-1;xB=n/2+1;yB=m/2+1; break;
        case 3: xA=n/2-1;yA=m/2+1;xB=n/2+1;yB=m/2-1; break;
        case 4: xA=n/2-1;yA=0;xB=n/2+1;yB=m-1; break;
        case 5: xA=n/2+1;yA=m-1;xB=n/2-1;yB=0; break;
        case 6: xA=0;yA=m/2-1;xB=n-1;yB=m/2+1; break;
        case 7: xA=n-1;yA=m/2+1;xB=0;yB=m/2-1; break;
    }

    cout<<"Map Size (X,Y): "<<n<<","<<m<<endl;
    cout<<"Start: "<<xA<<","<<yA<<endl;
    cout<<"Finish: "<<xB<<","<<yB<<endl;
    // get the route
    clock_t start = clock();
    string route=pathFind(xA, yA, xB, yB);
    if(route=="") cout<<"An empty route generated!"<<endl;
    clock_t end = clock();
    double time_elapsed = double(end - start);
    cout<<"Time to calculate the route (ms): "<<time_elapsed<<endl;
    cout<<"Route:"<<endl;
    cout<<route<<endl<<endl;

    // follow the route on the map and display it 
    if(route.length()>0)
    {
        int j; char c;
        int x=xA;
        int y=yA;
        map[x][y]=2;
        for(int i=0;i<route.length();i++)
        {
            c =route.at(i);
            j=atoi(&c); 
            x=x+dx[j];
            y=y+dy[j];
            map[x][y]=3;
        }
        map[x][y]=4;
    
        // display the map with the route
        for(int y=0;y<m;y++)
        {
            for(int x=0;x<n;x++)
                if(map[x][y]==0)
                    cout<<".";
                else if(map[x][y]==1)
                    cout<<"O"; //obstacle
                else if(map[x][y]==2)
                    cout<<"S"; //start
                else if(map[x][y]==3)
                    cout<<"R"; //route
                else if(map[x][y]==4)
                    cout<<"F"; //finish
            cout<<endl;
        }
    }
    getchar(); // wait for a (Enter) keypress  
    return(0);
}

9 comments

Léo LETARO 10 years ago  # | flag

I updated your code, to remove all memory leaks.

Need a delete n0' before L113 Need adelete m0' after L168 (now 169) Need a `delete m0' after L199 (now 201)

(line numbers are always your line numbers)

I also needed some more includes (<cstdlib> <cstdio>)

Jirka 9 years, 8 months ago  # | flag

I think the major memory leak is caused by line 213, delete text "else delete m0" and add "delete m0" after line 214. So every new m0 will be deleted.

Mark Anthony 7 years, 6 months ago  # | flag

Wow! This is very great! Many many thanks for this :D

Uhm, question here...

What does this suppose to do:

open_nodes_map[x][y]=n0->getPriority(); // mark it on the open nodes map

At line 116 ?

I think x == n && y == m? And shouldn't be the x, y were xStart, yStart ?

I have integrated your code in my project but most of my ROWS and COLS are dynamic and I got a random error somehow in MSVC saying debug assertion failed ?

Paul Hutchinson 7 years, 2 months ago  # | flag

You are trashing memory (stack memory) on line 110:

open_nodes_map[x][y]=n0->getPriority(); // mark it on the open nodes map

y=m, x=n which are out of bounds. This should be:

open_nodes_map[xStart][yStart]=n0->getPriority(); // mark it on the open nodes map

Kristian Kristola 6 years, 4 months ago  # | flag

There's also a bug on line 266. j=atoi(&c); is wrong because there must be a null after c in order for this to work. It should be: j=c-'0';

AJW 5 years, 6 months ago  # | flag

Hey, I incorporated some of these helpful comments from other commenter's posts, this compiles on Dev C++ and now runs without causing abnormal termination on Windows 10

https://gist.github.com/soundmasteraj/8233fdd6fb939c126843e76beb986801.js

Thanks everybody! Hope this is helpful in some way. :)

https://code.activestate.com/recipes/users/4192555/ https://code.activestate.com/recipes/users/4180055/

shubham jaiswal 4 years, 11 months ago  # | flag

include these two library then work correctly.

include <stdio.h>

include <stdlib.h>

yosua andreas 4 years, 5 months ago  # | flag

why switch(rand()%8) in L231 cannot be used as a fuction ?

MTR 4 years, 4 months ago  # | flag

Thanks for your great efforts in this code :). But, l had an issue of run time error in this code, and after modifying Line (265) to be: j=(int)c - int(48); it worked well ,hope this help somebody :).

Created by FB36 on Mon, 8 Nov 2010 (MIT)
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