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This recipe is another example of how to use the winreg module. The code had the first purpose of demonstrating the concept of a graphical shell built in Python. The shell was easily modified to make use of the Window's registry but retains traces of its original method of operation (all of which has been commented out).

The program down below originally used the pickle module to save all of its settings when closing down. Now once the escape key is pressed, this Python 2.5 program can use the module presented in recipe 510392 to access Microsoft Window's Registry and store its settings there. Check do_exit and do_config functions for usage.

Python, 297 lines
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import os
import sys
import random
import cPickle
import tkFileDialog
import tkSimpleDialog
import tkMessageBox
import tkColorChooser
import Tkinter
import StringIO
from Tkinter import *
from winreg import *

# Check on DEFAULT_IMAGE data.

DEFAULT_IMAGE = 'GIF89a \x00 \x00\xf7\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x80\x00\x00\x00\x80\x00\x80\x80\x00\x00\x00\x80\x80\x00\x80\x00\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\xc0\xc0\xc0\xff\x00\x00\x00\xff\x00\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\x00\xff\x00\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x003\x00\x00f\x00\x00\x99\x00\x00\xcc\x00\x00\xff\x003\x00\x0033\x003f\x003\x99\x003\xcc\x003\xff\x00f\x00\x00f3\x00ff\x00f\x99\x00f\xcc\x00f\xff\x00\x99\x00\x00\x993\x00\x99f\x00\x99\x99\x00\x99\xcc\x00\x99\xff\x00\xcc\x00\x00\xcc3\x00\xccf\x00\xcc\x99\x00\xcc\xcc\x00\xcc\xff\x00\xff\x00\x00\xff3\x00\xfff\x00\xff\x99\x00\xff\xcc\x00\xff\xff3\x00\x003\x0033\x00f3\x00\x993\x00\xcc3\x00\xff33\x0033333f33\x9933\xcc33\xff3f\x003f33ff3f\x993f\xcc3f\xff3\x99\x003\x9933\x99f3\x99\x993\x99\xcc3\x99\xff3\xcc\x003\xcc33\xccf3\xcc\x993\xcc\xcc3\xcc\xff3\xff\x003\xff33\xfff3\xff\x993\xff\xcc3\xff\xfff\x00\x00f\x003f\x00ff\x00\x99f\x00\xccf\x00\xfff3\x00f33f3ff3\x99f3\xccf3\xffff\x00ff3fffff\x99ff\xccff\xfff\x99\x00f\x993f\x99ff\x99\x99f\x99\xccf\x99\xfff\xcc\x00f\xcc3f\xccff\xcc\x99f\xcc\xccf\xcc\xfff\xff\x00f\xff3f\xffff\xff\x99f\xff\xccf\xff\xff\x99\x00\x00\x99\x003\x99\x00f\x99\x00\x99\x99\x00\xcc\x99\x00\xff\x993\x00\x9933\x993f\x993\x99\x993\xcc\x993\xff\x99f\x00\x99f3\x99ff\x99f\x99\x99f\xcc\x99f\xff\x99\x99\x00\x99\x993\x99\x99f\x99\x99\x99\x99\x99\xcc\x99\x99\xff\x99\xcc\x00\x99\xcc3\x99\xccf\x99\xcc\x99\x99\xcc\xcc\x99\xcc\xff\x99\xff\x00\x99\xff3\x99\xfff\x99\xff\x99\x99\xff\xcc\x99\xff\xff\xcc\x00\x00\xcc\x003\xcc\x00f\xcc\x00\x99\xcc\x00\xcc\xcc\x00\xff\xcc3\x00\xcc33\xcc3f\xcc3\x99\xcc3\xcc\xcc3\xff\xccf\x00\xccf3\xccff\xccf\x99\xccf\xcc\xccf\xff\xcc\x99\x00\xcc\x993\xcc\x99f\xcc\x99\x99\xcc\x99\xcc\xcc\x99\xff\xcc\xcc\x00\xcc\xcc3\xcc\xccf\xcc\xcc\x99\xcc\xcc\xcc\xcc\xcc\xff\xcc\xff\x00\xcc\xff3\xcc\xfff\xcc\xff\x99\xcc\xff\xcc\xcc\xff\xff\xff\x00\x00\xff\x003\xff\x00f\xff\x00\x99\xff\x00\xcc\xff\x00\xff\xff3\x00\xff33\xff3f\xff3\x99\xff3\xcc\xff3\xff\xfff\x00\xfff3\xffff\xfff\x99\xfff\xcc\xfff\xff\xff\x99\x00\xff\x993\xff\x99f\xff\x99\x99\xff\x99\xcc\xff\x99\xff\xff\xcc\x00\xff\xcc3\xff\xccf\xff\xcc\x99\xff\xcc\xcc\xff\xcc\xff\xff\xff\x00\xff\xff3\xff\xfff\xff\xff\x99\xff\xff\xcc\xff\xff\xff!\xf9\x04\x01\x00\x00\x10\x00,\x00\x00\x00\x00 \x00 \x00\x00\x08\xbd\x00Q\x08\x1cH\xb0\xa0\xc1\x83\x08\x13*\\\xc8\xad\xa1\xc3\x87\x0e\x05\x1a\x99H\xb1"E\x82\x1036\x94h\xb1\xa3\x11\x8c\x1a!r\xf4X\x11d\xc8\x88(HZ4y\x92\xdbH\x95\x1f\x07\xb6D\t\xf3\xa2\xcc\x99.S\xd6\x8c)\x10g\xce\x9d<Q\xf8|\xa9\x92\xe5I\xa2$\x8d\x86D\xeaQ\xa9F\xa6\x1d\x9df\x84\xbar\xa1\xd5\xabX\xb3\nl\xc1\xb5\xab\xd7\xae\x02\xf5\x89\x1dKv,\xc1\xafh\xb9\x86-\xcbV\xdf\xd9\xb4_\xd7\xb6%\xfb\x16.X\x14s\xcb\xd6\xb5\xdbBn^\xb7\x03\xf9\xde\xfdk6\xb0\xe0\xbex\t\x03\xdez\xd8o\xde\xbdv\x1d\xcf\x85\x0cWr[\xcai-\xb3\xc5\x8cV\xb3^\xc3\x82=\xd3\xd5J\xba4\xd6\x80\x00;'

if not os.path.isdir('images'):
    if os.path.exists('images'):
        os.remove('images')
    os.mkdir('images')

if not os.path.isfile('images\\default.gif'):
    if os.path.exists('images\\default.gif'):
        os.rmdir('images\\default.gif')
    file('images\\default.gif', 'wb').write(DEFAULT_IMAGE)

# Define some helper classes.

class PhotoImage(Tkinter.PhotoImage):

    def __init__(self, name=None, cnf={}, master=None, **kw):
        Tkinter.PhotoImage.__init__(self, name, cnf, master, **kw)
        self.file = kw['file']

class Shortcut(tkSimpleDialog.Dialog):

    def __init__(self, parent, widget, title=None):
        self.widget = widget
        tkSimpleDialog.Dialog.__init__(self, parent, title)

    def body(self, master):
        self.filename = LabelFrame(master, text='Filename')
        self.entry = Entry(self.filename)
        if hasattr(self.widget, 'shortcut'):
            self.entry.insert(0, self.widget.shortcut)
        self.entry.grid(row=0, column=0, padx=5, pady=5)
        self.button = Button(self.filename, text='Browse...', command=self.command)
        self.button.grid(row=0, column=1, padx=5, pady=5)
        self.filename.pack()
        return self.entry

    def command(self):
        filename = tkFileDialog.Open().show()
        if filename:
            filename = filename.replace('/', '\\')
            self.widget.shortcut = filename
            self.entry.delete(0, END)
            self.entry.insert(0, filename)

    def apply(self):
        self.widget.shortcut = self.entry.get()

    def validate(self):
        if os.path.exists(self.entry.get()):
            return True
        else:
            tkMessageBox.showerror('Error', 'File does not exist.')
            return False

class Create_PhotoImage(tkSimpleDialog.Dialog):

    def __init__(self, parent, reference, event, title):
        self.reference = reference
        self.event = event
        tkSimpleDialog.Dialog.__init__(self, parent, title)

    def body(self, master):
        self.filename = LabelFrame(master, text='Filename')
        self.entry = Entry(self.filename)
        self.entry.grid(row=0, column=0, padx=5, pady=5)
        self.button = Button(self.filename, text='Browse...', command=self.commander)
        self.button.grid(row=0, column=1, padx=5, pady=5)
        self.filename.pack()
        return self.entry

    def commander(self):
        filename = tkFileDialog.askopenfilename(filetypes=[('GIF files', '*.gif')])
        if filename.lower().endswith('.gif'):
            self.entry.delete(0, END)
            self.entry.insert(0, filename.replace('/', '\\'))

    def validate(self):
        if os.path.exists(self.entry.get()) and self.entry.get().lower().endswith('.gif'):
            return True
        else:
            tkMessageBox.showerror('Error', 'File cannot be used..')
            return False

    def apply(self):
        global w, h
        filename = self.entry.get()
        canvas = self.event.widget
        put(canvas, PhotoImage(file=filename), float(self.event.x) / w, float(self.event.y) / h)

# Define action on exit.        

def do_exit(event):
##    all = media.find_all()
##    options = [media.config()['background'][-1]]
##    for item in all:
##        options.append([reference[item].file, media.coords(item)])
##        if hasattr(reference[item], 'shortcut'):
##            options[-1].append(reference[item].shortcut)
##    cPickle.dump(options, file('shell.ini', 'wb'), -1)
##    event.widget.quit()
    software = Key(key=HKEY.CURRENT_USER, sub_key='Software')
    if 'Atlantis Zero' not in software.keys:
        software.keys = 'Atlantis Zero'
    az = Key(key=software, sub_key='Atlantis Zero')
    if 'Demo Shell' not in az.keys:
        az.keys = 'Demo Shell'
    ds = Key(key=az, sub_key='Demo Shell')
    if 'winreg' not in ds.keys:
        ds.keys = 'winreg'
    winreg = Key(key=ds, sub_key='winreg', sam=KEY.ALL_ACCESS)
    del winreg.values
    winreg.values['background'] = REG_BINARY(media.config()['background'][-1])
    for index, item in enumerate(media.find_all()):
        temp = [reference[item].file, media.coords(item)]
        if hasattr(reference[item], 'shortcut'):
            temp.append(reference[item].shortcut)
        winreg.values['IMAGE_%s' % (index + 1)] = REG_BINARY(cPickle.dumps(temp, -1))
    event.widget.quit()

# Start setting up the GUI.

root = Tk()
w, h = root.winfo_screenwidth(), root.winfo_screenheight()
root.overrideredirect(True)
root.geometry("%dx%d+0+0" % (w, h))
root.focus_set()
root.bind("<Escape>", do_exit)

reference = dict()
os.chdir(os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0]))

def put(media, image, x, y):
    media_w, media_h = int(media.config()['width'][-1]), int(media.config()['height'][-1])
    start_w, start_h = image.width() / 2, image.height() / 2
    stop_w, stop_h = media_w - start_w, media_h - start_h
    position = (stop_w - start_w) * x + start_w, (stop_h - start_h) * y + start_h
    handle = media.create_image(position, image=image)
    reference[handle] = image
    return handle

def files():
    return [os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'images', name) for name in os.listdir(os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'images'))]

curx = cury = selected = None

def select(event):
    global selected, curx, cury
    selected = event.widget.find_withtag(CURRENT)
    if not selected:
        selected = None
    else:
        selected = selected[0]
        curx, cury = event.x, event.y
        event.widget.tag_raise(selected)

def move(event):
    global curx, cury
    canvas = event.widget
    sel = canvas.find_withtag(CURRENT)
    if sel:
        sel = sel[0]
    if sel and sel == selected:
        canvas = event.widget
        x = canvas.canvasx(event.x)
        y = canvas.canvasx(event.y)
        canvas.move(selected, event.x - curx, event.y - cury)
        curx = event.x
        cury = event.y

def activate(event):
    global selected
    canvas = event.widget
    sel = canvas.find_withtag(CURRENT)
    if sel:
        sel = sel[0]
    if sel and sel == selected:
        selected = None
        widget = reference[sel]
        if hasattr(widget, 'shortcut') and os.path.exists(widget.shortcut):
            os.chdir(os.path.dirname(widget.shortcut))
            os.startfile(widget.shortcut)
        else:
            filename = tkFileDialog.Open().show()
            if filename:
                widget.shortcut = filename.replace('/', '\\')

def new_PhotoImage():
    Create_PhotoImage(root, reference, the_event, 'New Shortcut')

def edit_PhotoImage():
    Shortcut(root, selected_PhotoImage, 'Shortcut')

def delete_PhotoImage():
    global the_canvas, selected
    if len(reference) == 1:
        tkMessageBox.showerror('Error', 'Cannot delete last shortcut.')
    else:
        the_canvas.delete(selected)
        del reference[selected]

shortcut_menu = Menu(root, tearoff=0)
shortcut_menu.add_command(label='New', command=new_PhotoImage)
shortcut_menu.add_command(label='Edit', command=edit_PhotoImage)
shortcut_menu.add_command(label='Delete', command=delete_PhotoImage)

def properties(event):
    global selected_PhotoImage, selected, the_canvas, the_event
    canvas = event.widget
    sel = canvas.find_withtag(CURRENT)
    if sel:
        selected_PhotoImage = reference[sel[0]]
        selected = sel[0]
        the_canvas = canvas
        the_event = event
        shortcut_menu.post(event.x_root, event.y_root)
    else:
        color = tkColorChooser.askcolor(canvas.config()['background'][-1])
        if color[1]:
            canvas.config(background=color[1])

media = Canvas(root, width=w, height=h)
media.bind('<Button-1>', select)
media.bind('<B1-Motion>', move)
media.bind('<Double-Button-1>', activate)
media.bind('<Button-3>', properties)
media.pack()

# CONFIGURATION

def do_config():
##    options = cPickle.load(file('shell.ini', 'rb'))
##    media.config(background=options[0])
##    for item in options[1:]:
##        name = item[0]
##        coords = item[1]
##        image = PhotoImage(file=name)
##        reference[media.create_image(coords, image=image)] = image
##        if len(item) == 3:
##            image.shortcut = item[2]
    option = Key(key=HKEY.CURRENT_USER, sub_key='Software\\Atlantis Zero\\Demo Shell\\winreg').values
    media.config(background=option['background'].value)
    for name in option:
        if name != 'background':
            item = cPickle.loads(option[name].value)
            name = item[0]
            coords = item[1]
            image = PhotoImage(file=name)
            reference[media.create_image(coords, image=image)] = image
            if len(item) == 3:
                image.shortcut = item[2]

def do_setup():
    if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == 'random':
        do_random = True
    else:
        do_random = False
    if do_random:
        media.config(background='#ffffff')
    else:
        media.config(background='#00007f')
    names = files()
    random.shuffle(names)
    for name in names:
        if name.lower().endswith('default.gif'):
            calibrate = name
        elif name.lower().endswith('.gif') and do_random:
            image = PhotoImage(file=name)
            put(media, image, random.random(), random.random())
    for x in range(2):
        for y in range(2):
            media.tag_lower(put(media, PhotoImage(file=calibrate), x, y))
            
##if os.path.exists('shell.ini'):
try:
    do_config()
except:
    do_setup()
##else:
##    do_setup()

root.mainloop()

Function do_exit describes the process of saving data to the registry. Function do_config describes how to extract information from the registry. Both functions have comments describing an alternate way to save and load information.

The following function was written after this recipe but could be easily used by the "do_exit" function.

def mars(key, sub_key, sam):
    'Make And Return Subkey'
    key = winreg.Key(key=key)
    for sub in sub_key.split(os.sep):
        if sub not in key.keys:
            key.keys = sub
        key = key.keys[sub]
    return winreg.Key(key=key, sam=sam)

The first ten lines of do_exit could have been replaced with winreg = mars(HKEY.CURRENT_USER, 'Software\\Atlantis Zero\\Demo Shell\\winreg', KEY.ALL_ACCESS).

2 comments

Kevin Buchs 10 years, 6 months ago  # | flag

What is this code doing here? This doesn't even use the winreg module. Something is misplaced, I would guess.

Stephen Chappell (author) 10 years, 6 months ago  # | flag

Sorry about that, Kevin! The recipe has been corrected now to clarify your confusion. This recipe was written quite a while ago when Python 3.x's winreg module used to be called _winreg in Python 2.5. IMHO, neither _winreg nor winreg are very Pythonic in their interface; so back when I was still using Python 2.5, recipe 510392 came about as a proposal to be a higher-level interface over _winreg (and would hopefully have been called winreg). Since then, a better interface has been designed for the current winreg module in Python 3.x but has not been posted here in the Python Cookbook yet.