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This was my first file that was larger than 100 lines, and ended up being 500. I'm new at coding and would like some feedback as to how i can improve, and what you like. I also made the computer unbeatable, unless i messed up somewhere in my code and never noticed it.

Python, 497 lines
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print "Welcome to TicTacToe (v.3)"
print "In this version I added a computer"

xwins = 0
owins = 0
tiewins = 0

def xturn():                        #player x's move
    global pc
    global n
    global z
    if z == 0:
        ocheck()
    if n == 9:
        
        global a
        global b
        global c
        global d
        global e
        global f
        global g
        global h
        global i

        x = input ("Player X, type the number you want to place an X: ")
        print "X = ",x

        if x == 1:
            xtest(a)
            a = "X"
        elif x == 2:
            xtest(b)
            b = "X"
        elif x == 3:
            xtest(c)
            c = "X"
        elif x == 4:
            xtest(d)
            d = "X"
        elif x == 5:
            xtest(e)
            e = "X"
        elif x == 6:
            xtest(f)
            f = "X"
        elif x == 7:
            xtest(g)
            g = "X"
        elif x == 8:
            xtest(h)
            h = "X"
        elif x == 9:
            xtest(i)
            i = "X"
        else:
            print "That is not a valid entry, please enter an interger between 1-9"
            xturn()
            
        if pc == 2:
            print
            print a,"|",b,"|",c
            print "---------"
            print d,"|",e,"|",f
            print "---------"
            print g,"|",h,"|",i
            print
            z = 0
            oturn()
        elif pc == 1:
            z = 0
            ocomputer()

def oturn():                                                # player o's move
    global n
    global z
    if z == 0:
        xcheck()
    if n == 9:

        global a
        global b
        global c
        global d
        global e
        global f
        global g
        global h
        global i

        o =  input ("Player O, type the number you want to place an O: ")
        print "O = ",o

        if o == 1:
            otest(a)
            a = "O"
        elif o == 2:
            otest(b)
            b = "O"
        elif o == 3:
            otest(c)
            c = "O"
        elif o == 4:
            otest(d)
            d = "O"
        elif o == 5:
            otest(e)
            e = "O"
        elif o == 6:
            otest(f)
            f = "O"
        elif o == 7:
            otest(g)
            g = "O"
        elif o == 8:
            otest(h)
            h = "O"
        elif o == 9:
            otest(i)
            i = "O"
        else:
            print "That is not a valid entry, please enter an interger between 1-9"
            oturn()
        print
        print
        print a,"|",b,"|",c
        print "---------"
        print d,"|",e,"|",f
        print "---------"
        print g,"|",h,"|",i
        print
        z = 0
        xturn()

def xcheck():                                                   #checks to see if last move made x win                               
    global z
    global pc
    if   a == "X" and b == "X" and c == "X":
        xwin()
    elif b == "X" and e == "X" and h == "X":
        xwin()
    elif d == "X" and e == "X" and f == "X":
        xwin()
    elif a == "X" and d == "X" and g == "X":
        xwin()
    elif g == "X" and h == "X" and i == "X":
        xwin()
    elif c == "X" and f == "X" and i == "X":
        xwin()
    elif a == "X" and e == "X" and i == "X":
        xwin()
    elif c == "X" and e == "X" and g == "X":
        xwin()
    elif a != 1 and b != 2 and c != 3 and d != 4 and e != 5 and f != 6 and g != 7 and h != 8 and i != 9:
        tie()
    else:
        z = 1
        if pc == 2:
            oturn()
        elif pc == 1:
            ocomputer()

def ocheck():                                       #checks to see if last move made o win 
    global z
    if   a == "O" and b == "O" and c == "O":
        owin()
    elif b == "O" and e == "O" and h == "O":
        owin()
    elif d == "O" and e == "O" and f == "O":
        owin()
    elif a == "O" and d == "O" and g == "O":
        owin()
    elif g == "O" and h == "O" and i == "O":
        owin()
    elif c == "O" and f == "O" and i == "O":
        owin()
    elif a == "O" and e == "O" and i == "O":
        owin()
    elif c == "O" and e == "O" and g == "O":
        owin()
    elif a != 1 and b != 2 and c != 3 and d != 4 and e != 5 and f != 6 and g != 7 and h != 8 and i != 9:
        tie()
    else:
        z = 1
        xturn()

def otest(num):                                         #checks to see if spot is taken for o's turn
    if num == "X" or num == "O":
        print "This spot has been taken, enter a different spot"
        oturn()

def xtest(num):                                          #check to see if spot is taken for x's turn
    if num == "X" or num == "O":
        print "This spot has been taken, enter a different spot"
        xturn()

def owin():             #executes if o won (from xheck)
    global pc
    global owins
    print "Congratulations O, you have won!"
    owins = owins + 1
    if pc == 2:
        newgame()
    elif pc == 1:
        print
        print a,"|",b,"|",c
        print "---------"
        print d,"|",e,"|",f
        print "---------"
        print g,"|",h,"|",i
        print
        newgame()
        
def xwin():                                         #executes if x won (from ocheck)
    global n
    global xwins
    if n == 9:
        print "Congratulations X, you have won!"
        xwins = xwins + 1
        if pc == 2:
            newgame()
        elif pc == 1:
            print
            print a,"|",b,"|",c
            print "---------"
            print d,"|",e,"|",f
            print "---------"
            print g,"|",h,"|",i
            print
            newgame()

def newgame():                                  #asks is player wants to play another game
    global xwins
    global owins
    global tiewins
    global n
    if n == 9:
        print "X has won",xwins,"times, O has won",owins,"times, and there has been",tiewins,"ties."
        t = raw_input("Do you want to play again? 'y' yes 'n' no: ")
        if t == "y":
            first()
        elif t == "n":
            n = 0
            end()
        else:
            print "That is not a valid entry"
            newgame()
    
def ocomputer():                                    #ocomputer's choice
    global pc
    global n
    global z
    global a
    global b
    global c
    global d
    global e
    global f
    global g
    global h
    global i
    global x

    if z == 0:
        xcheck()
    if n == 9:
        
        if e == 5:                                  #goes to center if spot open
            e = "O"
            
        elif a == 1 and b == "O" and c == "O":          #checks for open spot for immediate win
            a = "O"
        elif a == 1 and d == "O" and g == "O":
            a = "O"
        elif a == 1 and e == "O" and i == "O":
            a = "O"
        elif b == 2 and e == "O" and h == "O":
            b = "O"
        elif b == 2 and a == "O" and c == "O":
            b = "O"
        elif c == 3 and b == "O" and a == "O":
            c = "O"
        elif c == 3 and f == "O" and i == "O":
            c = "O"
        elif c == 3 and e == "O" and g == "O":
            c = "O"
        elif d == 4 and e == "O" and f == "O":
            d = "O"
        elif d == 4 and a == "O" and g == "O":
            d = "O"
        elif f == 6 and c == "O" and i == "O":
            f = "O"
        elif f == 6 and e == "O" and d == "O":
            f = "O"
        elif g == 7 and d == "O" and a == "O":
            g = "O"
        elif g == 7 and e == "O" and c == "O":
            g = "O"
        elif g == 7 and h == "O" and i == "O":
            g = "O"
        elif h == 8 and e == "O" and b == "O":
            h = "O"
        elif h == 8 and i == "O" and g == "O":
            h = "O"
        elif i == 9 and h == "O" and g == "O":
            i = "O"
        elif i == 9 and e == "O" and a == "O":
            i = "O"
        elif i == 9 and f == "O" and c == "O":
            i = "O"

        elif a == 1 and b == "X" and c == "X":                  # checks for immediate loss
            a = "O"
        elif a == 1 and d == "X" and g == "X":
            a = "O"
        elif a == 1 and e == "X" and i == "X":
            a = "O"
        elif b == 2 and e == "X" and h == "X":
            b = "O"
        elif b == 2 and a == "X" and c == "X":
            b = "O"
        elif c == 3 and b == "X" and a == "X":
            c = "O"
        elif c == 3 and f == "X" and i == "X":
            c = "O"
        elif c == 3 and e == "X" and g == "X":
            c = "O"
        elif d == 4 and e == "X" and f == "X":
            d = "O"
        elif d == 4 and a == "X" and g == "X":
            d = "O"
        elif f == 6 and c == "X" and i == "X":
            f = "O"
        elif f == 6 and e == "X" and d == "X":
            f = "O"
        elif g == 7 and d == "X" and a == "X":
            g = "O"
        elif g == 7 and e == "X" and c == "X":
            g = "O"
        elif g == 7 and h == "X" and i == "X":
            g = "O"
        elif h == 8 and e == "X" and b == "X":
            h = "O"
        elif h == 8 and i == "X" and g == "X":
            h = "O"
        elif i == 9 and h == "X" and g == "X":
            i = "O"
        elif i == 9 and e == "X" and a == "X":
            i = "O"
        elif i == 9 and f == "X" and c == "X":
            i = "O"
        elif e == 5 and a == "X" and i == "X":
            e = "O"
        elif e == 5 and b == "X" and h == "X":
            e = "O"
        elif e == 5 and c == "X" and g == "X":
            e = "O"
        elif e == 5 and f == "X" and d == "X":
            e = "O"

        elif a == "X" and f == "X" and c == 3:
            c = "O"
        elif a == "X" and h == "X" and g == 7:
            g = "O"
        elif a == "X" and i == "X" and b == 2:
            b = "O"
        elif b == "X" and f == "X" and c == 3:
            c = "O"
        elif b == "X" and h == "X" and f == 6:
            f = "O"
        elif b == "X" and d == "X" and a == 1:
            a = "O"
        elif b == "X" and g == "X" and a == 1:
            a = "O"
        elif c == "X" and d == "X" and a == 1:
            a = "O"
        elif c == "X" and g == "X" and b == 2:
            b = "O"
        elif c == "X" and h == "X" and i == 9:
            i = "O"
        elif d == "X" and f == "X" and b == 2:
            b = "O"
        elif d == "X" and i == "X" and g == 7:
            a = "O"
        elif d == "X" and h == "X" and g == 7:
            g = "O"
        elif f == "X" and g == "X" and i == 9:
            i = "O"
        elif f == "X" and h == "X" and i == 9:
            i = "O"

        elif c == 3:
            c = "O"
        elif a == 1:
            a = "O"
        elif g == 7:
            g = "O"
        elif i == 9:
            i = "O"
        elif b == 2:
            b = "O"
        elif d == 4:
            d = "O"
        elif f == 6:
            f = "O"
        elif h == 8:
            h = "O"

        print
        print a,"|",b,"|",c
        print "---------"
        print d,"|",e,"|",f
        print "---------"
        print g,"|",h,"|",i
        print
    
        z = 0
        xturn()

def tie():                                          #executes if tie game(from x/o check)
    global tiewins
    print "Tie game! You are both losers."
    tiewins = tiewins + 1
    newgame()

def end():                                          #executes if player wants to quit(from newgame)
    global n
    n = 0
    print "Good Bye"
    
def first():                #check to see if end game loops back to here
    global z
    global t
    global w
    global pc
    global a
    global b
    global c
    global d
    global e
    global f
    global g
    global h
    global i
    global x
    global o
    global t
    global n

    a = 1
    b = 2
    c = 3
    d = 4
    e = 5
    f = 6
    g = 7
    h = 8
    i = 9
    x = 0
    o = 0
    z = 1
    
    t = 0
    if n != 0:
        pc = input ("Do you want to play a '1' player or '2' player game? ")

        if pc == 1:
            print
            print a,"|",b,"|",c
            print "---------"
            print d,"|",e,"|",f
            print "---------"
            print g,"|",h,"|",i
            print
            n = 9
            xturn()

        if pc == 2:
            n = 9
            w = raw_input ("Who shall go first, 'x' player or 'o' player: ")
            print
            print a,"|",b,"|",c
            print "---------"
            print d,"|",e,"|",f
            print "---------"
            print g,"|",h,"|",i
            print
            if w == "o":
                oturn()
            elif w == "x":
                xturn()
            else:
                print "That is not a valid entry"
                first()

n = 9
first()

I know few commands in python, and that has resulted in a larger code. There is also a bug where when you attempt to quit after you played a couple games, the program will continue.

3 comments

Greg Jorgensen 16 years, 2 months ago  # | flag

Needs more sophisticated data structures. So many similar if...elif... constructs are a sign that you need better data structures. In this case an array to hold the game, instead of 9 globals, would make the code a lot shorter. You have some recursion going on when xturn calls xtest, which then may call xturn again (same for oturn and otest). If the board was represented in a nine-element array your code would get a lot simpler. You should return a result from functions rather than making the functions call the calling function again.

Here's a tic-tac-toe game I developed for a programming class I organized for kids and teens. It shows typical Python data structures and functions. This program follows these rules to choose a square: (1) Win the game if possible; (2) Block opponent if necessary; (3) If playing offense, take a lever square if possible; If playing defense and opponent has an open lever square, make two-in-a-row to force opponent to block into a non-lever square; (4) Take the center; (5) Take a corner; (6)Take a side. A lever square is where two winning lines intersect. Given any two squares, draw lines through them to indicate all winning positions that include those squares. Eliminate lines that go through both squares. Eliminate lines that have an opponent's piece on them. If any intersections are left, those are levers. For any two squares you hold, if you can also occupy one of the levers for those squares you have made two two-in-a-row combinations, so you can win on the next turn.

This code could condensed quite a bit, but it was developed during the course of the class and is verbose in places to illustrate programming concepts.

# tic tac toe - revised version
#
# by Greg Jorgensen with help from Josh Singer

from random import shuffle

# wins contains all possible winning combinations,
# excluding reflections and rotations
allwins = [(1,2,3), (1,4,7), (1,5,9), (2,5,8), (3,5,7), (3,6,9), (4,5,6), (7,8,9)]

# board values
E = '.'
X = 'X'
O = 'O'

# fresh board, note position 0 not used
newgame = [E, E,E,E, E,E,E, E,E,E]

# opponent for each player
opponent = {X:O, O:X}


# helper functions

def display(game):
    ''' print the game '''
    print "%s %s %s\n%s %s %s\n%s %s %s" % tuple(game[1:])

def askHuman(game):
    ''' prompt human player to pick a square, return when they pick an empty square '''
    while 1:
        s = raw_input('\nyour move (1-9)? ')
        try:
            p = int(s.strip())
            if p < 1 or p > 9:
                print 'between 1 and 9'
            elif game[p] == E:
                return p
            else:
                print 'pick an empty square'
        except:
            print 'numbers only'

(comment continued...)

Greg Jorgensen 16 years, 2 months ago  # | flag

(...continued from previous comment)

def possibleWins(wins, player, square):
    ''' return all wins for player that don't include square '''
    w = []
    for a in wins[player]:
        if square not in a:
            w.append(a)

    return w

def winner(game, wins, player):
    ''' return true if player won the game '''
    for p,q,r in wins[player]:
        line = (game[p], game[q], game[r])
        if line == (player, player, player):
            return 1

    return 0

def findWins(game, wins, player):
    ''' find all winning squares for player, list of winning squares or [] if none '''
    squares = []
    for p,q,r in wins[player]:
        line = (game[p], game[q], game[r])
        if line == (player,player,E):
            squares.append(r)
        elif line == (player,E,player):
            squares.append(q)
        elif line == (E,player,player):
            squares.append(p)

    return squares

def findTwos(game, wins, player):
    ''' find all two-in-a-row combinations with a possible win for player '''
    twos = []
    for p,q,r in wins[player]:
        line = (game[p], game[q], game[r])
        if line == (player,E,E):
            twos.append((q,r))
        elif line == (E, player, E):
            twos.append((p,r))
        elif line == (E, E, player):
            twos.append((p,q))

    return twos

def findLevers(game, wins, player):
    ''' find all lever squares for player
    1) find all two-in-a-rows with possible wins
    2) find squares that occur in two or more two-in-a-row combinations '''
    levers = []
    counts = {1:0, 2:0, 3:0, 4:0, 5:0, 6:0, 7:0, 8:0, 9:0}
    twos = findTwos(game, wins, player)
    for t in twos:
        counts[t[0]] += 1
        counts[t[1]] += 1

    for i in counts:
        if counts[i] > 1:
            levers.append(i)

    return levers

def pickSquare(game, wins, player):
    ''' pick the best square for player '''
    # 1: can player win?
    a = findWins(game, wins, player)
    if a:
        return a[0]

    # 2: does player have to block?
    a = findWins(game, wins, opponent[player])
    if a:
        return a[0]

(comment continued...)

Greg Jorgensen 16 years, 2 months ago  # | flag

(...continued from previous comment)

    # 3: grab or block levers
    if player == X:
        # OFFENSE: can player get a lever square?
        a = findLevers(game, wins, player)
        if a:
            return a[0]
    elif player == O:
        # DEFENSE: prevent opponent getting a lever square,
        # try to make two in a row
        a = findTwos(game, wins, player)
        b = findLevers(game, wins, opponent[player])
        for p,q in a:
            if p not in b:
                return q
            elif q not in b:
                return p

    # 4: take an empty corner, center, side
    a = [1,3,7,9]
    shuffle(a)
    b = [2,4,6,8]
    shuffle(b)
    a = [5] + a + b
    for p in a:
        if game[p] == E:
            return p

    # should never get here
    return 0


# main - play until bored

while 1:
    # init new game
    game = newgame[:]
    wins = {X: allwins[:], O: allwins[:]}

    while 1:
        s = raw_input('do you want to play X or O? ')
        s = s.strip().upper()
        if s == X or s == O:
            break

    human = s
    computer = opponent[human]
    player = X

    print 'square numbers:'
    print '1 2 3\n4 5 6\n7 8 9'
    print

    while 1:
        if player == human:
            display(game)
            p = askHuman(game)
        else:
            p = pickSquare(game, wins, computer)
            print 'computer picks %d\n' % (p)

        game[p] = player
        wins[opponent[player]] = possibleWins(wins, opponent[player], p)

        if winner(game, wins, human):
            print '\nYou Win!\n'
            break
        elif winner(game, wins, computer):
            print '\nComputer Wins\n'
            break
        elif wins[human] == [] and wins[computer] == []:
            print '\nTie Game\n'
            break

        player = opponent[player]

    print '------'
    display(game)
    print '------'

    s = raw_input('\nPlay again (yes or no)? ')
    s = s.strip().upper()
    if s[0] != 'Y':
        break

Greg Jorgensen

PDXperts LLC

Created by acestorage001 on Sun, 25 Sep 2005 (PSF)
Python recipes (4591)
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