class rbnode(object): """ A node in a red black tree. See Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein 2nd edition pg 273. """ def __init__(self, key): "Construct." self._key = key self._red = False self._left = None self._right = None self._p = None key = property(fget=lambda self: self._key, doc="The node's key") red = property(fget=lambda self: self._red, doc="Is the node red?") left = property(fget=lambda self: self._left, doc="The node's left child") right = property(fget=lambda self: self._right, doc="The node's right child") p = property(fget=lambda self: self._p, doc="The node's parent") def __str__(self): "String representation." return str(self.key) def __repr__(self): "String representation." return str(self.key) class rbtree(object): """ A red black tree. See Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein 2nd edition pg 273. """ def __init__(self, create_node=rbnode): "Construct." self._nil = create_node(key=None) "Our nil node, used for all leaves." self._root = self.nil "The root of the tree." self._create_node = create_node "A callable that creates a node." root = property(fget=lambda self: self._root, doc="The tree's root node") nil = property(fget=lambda self: self._nil, doc="The tree's nil node") def search(self, key, x=None): """ Search the subtree rooted at x (or the root if not given) iteratively for the key. @return: self.nil if it cannot find it. """ if None == x: x = self.root while x != self.nil and key != x.key: if key < x.key: x = x.left else: x = x.right return x def minimum(self, x=None): """ @return: The minimum value in the subtree rooted at x. """ if None == x: x = self.root while x.left != self.nil: x = x.left return x def maximum(self, x=None): """ @return: The maximum value in the subtree rooted at x. """ if None == x: x = self.root while x.right != self.nil: x = x.right return x def insert_key(self, key): "Insert the key into the tree." self.insert_node(self._create_node(key=key)) def insert_node(self, z): "Insert node z into the tree." y = self.nil x = self.root while x != self.nil: y = x if z.key < x.key: x = x.left else: x = x.right z._p = y if y == self.nil: self._root = z elif z.key < y.key: y._left = z else: y._right = z z._left = self.nil z._right = self.nil z._red = True self._insert_fixup(z) def _insert_fixup(self, z): "Restore red-black properties after insert." while if z.p == z.p.p.left: y = z.p.p.right if z.p._red = False y._red = False z.p.p._red = True z = z.p.p else: if z == z.p.right: z = z.p self._left_rotate(z) z.p._red = False z.p.p._red = True self._right_rotate(z.p.p) else: y = z.p.p.left if z.p._red = False y._red = False z.p.p._red = True z = z.p.p else: if z == z.p.left: z = z.p self._right_rotate(z) z.p._red = False z.p.p._red = True self._left_rotate(z.p.p) self.root._red = False def _left_rotate(self, x): "Left rotate x." y = x.right x._right = y.left if y.left != self.nil: y.left._p = x y._p = x.p if x.p == self.nil: self._root = y elif x == x.p.left: x.p._left = y else: x.p._right = y y._left = x x._p = y def _right_rotate(self, y): "Left rotate y." x = y.left y._left = x.right if x.right != self.nil: x.right._p = y x._p = y.p if y.p == self.nil: self._root = x elif y == y.p.right: y.p._right = x else: y.p._left = x x._right = y y._p = x def check_invariants(self): "@return: True iff satisfies all criteria to be red-black tree." def is_red_black_node(node): "@return: num_black" # check has _left and _right or neither if (node.left and not node.right) or (node.right and not node.left): return 0, False # check leaves are black if not node.left and not node.right and return 0, False # if node is red, check children are black if and node.left and node.right: if or return 0, False # descend tree and check black counts are balanced if node.left and node.right: # check children's parents are correct if self.nil != node.left and node != node.left.p: return 0, False if self.nil != node.right and node != node.right.p: return 0, False # check children are ok left_counts, left_ok = is_red_black_node(node.left) if not left_ok: return 0, False right_counts, right_ok = is_red_black_node(node.right) if not right_ok: return 0, False # check children's counts are ok if left_counts != right_counts: return 0, False return left_counts, True else: return 0, True num_black, is_ok = is_red_black_node(self.root) return is_ok and not self.root._red def write_tree_as_dot(t, f, show_nil=False): "Write the tree in the dot language format to f." def node_id(node): return 'N%d' % id(node) def node_color(node): if return "red" else: return "black" def visit_node(node): "Visit a node." print >> f, " %s [label=\"%s\", color=\"%s\"];" % (node_id(node), node, node_color(node)) if node.left: if node.left != t.nil or show_nil: visit_node(node.left) print >> f, " %s -> %s ;" % (node_id(node), node_id(node.left)) if node.right: if node.right != t.nil or show_nil: visit_node(node.right) print >> f, " %s -> %s ;" % (node_id(node), node_id(node.right)) print >> f, "// Created by rbtree.write_dot()" print >> f, "digraph red_black_tree {" visit_node(t.root) print >> f, "}" def test_tree(t, keys): "Insert keys one by one checking invariants and membership as we go." assert t.check_invariants() for i, key in enumerate(keys): for key2 in keys[:i]: assert t.nil != for key2 in keys[i:]: assert (t.nil == ^ (key2 in keys[:i]) t.insert_key(key) assert t.check_invariants() if '__main__' == __name__: import os, sys, numpy.random as R def write_tree(t, filename): "Write the tree as an SVG file." f = open('' % filename, 'w') write_tree_as_dot(t, f) f.close() os.system('dot -Tsvg -o %s.svg' % (filename, filename)) # test the rbtree R.seed(2) size=50 keys = R.randint(-50, 50, size=size) t = rbtree() test_tree(t, keys) write_tree(t, 'tree')