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from operator import itemgetter as _itemgetter
from keyword import iskeyword as _iskeyword
import sys as _sys

def namedtuple(typename, field_names, verbose=False, rename=False):
    """Returns a new subclass of tuple with named fields.

    >>> Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
    >>> Point.__doc__                   # docstring for the new class
    'Point(x, y)'
    >>> p = Point(11, y=22)             # instantiate with positional args or keywords
    >>> p[0] + p[1]                     # indexable like a plain tuple
    >>> x, y = p                        # unpack like a regular tuple
    >>> x, y
    (11, 22)
    >>> p.x + p.y                       # fields also accessable by name
    >>> d = p._asdict()                 # convert to a dictionary
    >>> d['x']
    >>> Point(**d)                      # convert from a dictionary
    Point(x=11, y=22)
    >>> p._replace(x=100)               # _replace() is like str.replace() but targets named fields
    Point(x=100, y=22)


    # Parse and validate the field names.  Validation serves two purposes,
    # generating informative error messages and preventing template injection attacks.
    if isinstance(field_names, basestring):
        field_names = field_names.replace(',', ' ').split() # names separated by whitespace and/or commas
    field_names = tuple(map(str, field_names))
    if rename:
        names = list(field_names)
        seen = set()
        for i, name in enumerate(names):
            if (not min(c.isalnum() or c=='_' for c in name) or _iskeyword(name)
                or not name or name[0].isdigit() or name.startswith('_')
                or name in seen):
                    names[i] = '_%d' % i
        field_names = tuple(names)
    for name in (typename,) + field_names:
        if not min(c.isalnum() or c=='_' for c in name):
            raise ValueError('Type names and field names can only contain alphanumeric characters and underscores: %r' % name)
        if _iskeyword(name):
            raise ValueError('Type names and field names cannot be a keyword: %r' % name)
        if name[0].isdigit():
            raise ValueError('Type names and field names cannot start with a number: %r' % name)
    seen_names = set()
    for name in field_names:
        if name.startswith('_') and not rename:
            raise ValueError('Field names cannot start with an underscore: %r' % name)
        if name in seen_names:
            raise ValueError('Encountered duplicate field name: %r' % name)

    # Create and fill-in the class template
    numfields = len(field_names)
    argtxt = repr(field_names).replace("'", "")[1:-1]   # tuple repr without parens or quotes
    reprtxt = ', '.join('%s=%%r' % name for name in field_names)
    template = '''class %(typename)s(tuple):
        '%(typename)s(%(argtxt)s)' \n
        __slots__ = () \n
        _fields = %(field_names)r \n
        def __new__(_cls, %(argtxt)s):
            return _tuple.__new__(_cls, (%(argtxt)s)) \n
        def _make(cls, iterable, new=tuple.__new__, len=len):
            'Make a new %(typename)s object from a sequence or iterable'
            result = new(cls, iterable)
            if len(result) != %(numfields)d:
                raise TypeError('Expected %(numfields)d arguments, got %%d' %% len(result))
            return result \n
        def __repr__(self):
            return '%(typename)s(%(reprtxt)s)' %% self \n
        def _asdict(self):
            'Return a new dict which maps field names to their values'
            return dict(zip(self._fields, self)) \n
        def _replace(_self, **kwds):
            'Return a new %(typename)s object replacing specified fields with new values'
            result = _self._make(map(kwds.pop, %(field_names)r, _self))
            if kwds:
                raise ValueError('Got unexpected field names: %%r' %% kwds.keys())
            return result \n
        def __getnewargs__(self):
            return tuple(self) \n\n''' % locals()
    for i, name in enumerate(field_names):
        template += '        %s = _property(_itemgetter(%d))\n' % (name, i)
    if verbose:
        print template

    # Execute the template string in a temporary namespace
    namespace = dict(_itemgetter=_itemgetter, __name__='namedtuple_%s' % typename,
                     _property=property, _tuple=tuple)
        exec template in namespace
    except SyntaxError, e:
        raise SyntaxError(e.message + ':\n' + template)
    result = namespace[typename]

    # For pickling to work, the __module__ variable needs to be set to the frame
    # where the named tuple is created.  Bypass this step in enviroments where
    # sys._getframe is not defined (Jython for example) or sys._getframe is not
    # defined for arguments greater than 0 (IronPython).
        result.__module__ = _sys._getframe(1).f_globals.get('__name__', '__main__')
    except (AttributeError, ValueError):

    return result

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # verify that instances can be pickled
    from cPickle import loads, dumps
    Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x, y', True)
    p = Point(x=10, y=20)
    assert p == loads(dumps(p, -1))

    # test and demonstrate ability to override methods
    class Point(namedtuple('Point', 'x y')):
        def hypot(self):
            return (self.x ** 2 + self.y ** 2) ** 0.5
        def __str__(self):
            return 'Point: x=%6.3f y=%6.3f hypot=%6.3f' % (self.x, self.y, self.hypot)

    for p in Point(3,4), Point(14,5), Point(9./7,6):
        print p

    class Point(namedtuple('Point', 'x y')):
        'Point class with optimized _make() and _replace() without error-checking'
        _make = classmethod(tuple.__new__)
        def _replace(self, _map=map, **kwds):
            return self._make(_map(kwds.get, ('x', 'y'), self))

    print Point(11, 22)._replace(x=100)

    import doctest
    TestResults = namedtuple('TestResults', 'failed attempted')
    print TestResults(*doctest.testmod())


  • revision 15 (13 years ago)
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