#!/usr/bin/env python # Backup files - As published in Python Cookbook # by O'Reilly with some bug-fixes. # Credit: Anand Pillai, Tiago Henriques, Mario Ruggier import sys,os, shutil, filecmp MAXVERSIONS=100 BAKFOLDER = '.bak' def backup_files(tree_top, bakdir_name=BAKFOLDER): """ Directory back up function. Takes the top-level directory and an optional backup folder name as arguments. By default the backup folder is a folder named '.bak' created inside the folder which is backed up. If another directory path is passed as value of this argument, the backup versions are created inside that directory instead. Maximum of 'MAXVERSIONS' simultaneous versions can be maintained Example usage ------------- The command $ python backup.py ~/programs will create backups of every file inside ~/programs inside sub-directories named '.bak' inside each folder. For example, the backups of files inside ~/programs will be found in ~/programs/.bak, the backup of files inside ~/programs/python in ~/programs/python/.bak etc. The command $ python backup.py ~/programs ~/backups will create backups of every file inside ~/backups/programs folder. No .bak folder is created. Instead backups of files in ~/programs will be inside ~/backups/programs, backups of files in ~/programs/python will be inside ~/backups/programs/python etc. """ top_dir = os.path.basename(tree_top) tree_top += os.sep for dir, subdirs, files in os.walk(tree_top): if os.path.isabs(bakdir_name): relpath = dir.replace(tree_top,'') backup_dir = os.path.join(bakdir_name, top_dir, relpath) else: backup_dir = os.path.join(dir, bakdir_name) if not os.path.exists(backup_dir): os.makedirs(backup_dir) # To avoid recursing into sub-directories subdirs[:] = [d for d in subdirs if d != bakdir_name] for f in files: filepath = os.path.join(dir, f) destpath = os.path.join(backup_dir, f) # Check existence of previous versions for index in xrange(MAXVERSIONS): backup = '%s.%2.2d' % (destpath, index) abspath = os.path.abspath(filepath) if index > 0: # No need to backup if file and last version # are identical old_backup = '%s.%2.2d' % (destpath, index-1) if not os.path.exists(old_backup): break abspath = os.path.abspath(old_backup) try: if os.path.isfile(abspath) and filecmp.cmp(abspath, filepath, shallow=False): continue except OSError: pass try: if not os.path.exists(backup): print 'Copying %s to %s...' % (filepath, backup) shutil.copy(filepath, backup) except (OSError, IOError), e: pass if __name__=="__main__": if len(sys.argv)<2: sys.exit("Usage: %s [directory] [backup directory]" % sys.argv[0]) tree_top = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(os.path.expandvars(sys.argv[1]))) if len(sys.argv)>=3: bakfolder = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(os.path.expandvars(sys.argv[2]))) else: bakfolder = BAKFOLDER if os.path.isdir(tree_top): backup_files(tree_top, bakfolder)